Molecular Imaging Probes

A molecular imaging probe is a type of compound that has uses in medicine, pharmacy, and biology. Such chemical compounds are used in drug research and development, molecular diagnostics, and biological research. There are advanced techniques that are used to quantitatively measure and visualize profiles, including molecular, functional, and anatomical profiles of cancer.

Uses and Techniques

Molecular imaging helps researchers analyze biological processes at the molecular, sub-cellular, and cellular level at different stages of medical conditions and disorders. The goal is to assess the effect of anti-cancer medications and treatments and manage diseases such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders and cancer. Imaging techniques can be generally divided into two broad categories. The first one covers computed tomography and ultrasound used to analyze anatomical changes. The second category includes techniques that help analyze processes at the biochemical level. There are different imaging techniques to this end, including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mMRI or molecular magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescence imaging or optical bioluminescence, single photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. Optical imaging, for examples, takes different forms, including reflectance, absorption, bioluminescence, and fluorescence. Scientists also use magnetic resonance imaging for functional and morphological imaging because of its good spatial resolution. Scientists usually use protein domains, small ligands, antibodies, and peptides for targeting purposes. SPECT or single proton emission computed tomography is another technique that researchers use to analyze cerebral blood flow. Such techniques are based on radioisotopes that are inexpensive to create and have half lives of up to a couple of days. This technique is often favored over other more expensive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The problem with SPECT is that such techniques are known for poor temporal and spatial resolution.

How Molecular Imaging Works

Molecular imaging probes are a type of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds also referred to as radiopharmaceuticals, tracers, and contrast agents. They are used to analyze patient response to different treatments and diagnose different diseases and disorders. Short-lived radioactive isotopes can be used to achieve this. Techniques such as SPECT and position emission tomography use cameras to track gamma rays and positrons that are released by the decay of radioactive isotopes. Isotopes such as gallium-68, iodine-124, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 can be used. Darker areas occur at the site of the disorder. Molecular imaging probes help assess the accuracy of doses, tailor treatments, and analyze the extent and severity of different disorders. Changes can be made if the treatment proves ineffective. The goal is to ensure that the best possible treatment is offered to achieve better outcomes. Such techniques are also used for early diagnosis and the effective treatment of tumors and other disorders. One of the uses of molecular imaging is in breast cancer therapy and evaluation. In this case, radiopharmaceuticals such as methoxyisobutylisonitrile, tetrofosmin, and tetrofosmin are commonly used.


Borrowing Options for Students

There is a host of borrowing options available to students, depending on the purpose, i.e. room and board, tuition, daily expenses, school-related expenses, utilities, etc.

Student Credit Cards

A student card can help meet daily and school-related expenses when you are short of money. This is an inexpensive borrowing option to pay for textbooks, books, groceries, water, electricity, and gas provided that you pay the full balance on a monthly basis. A student credit card can help build a healthy credit score over time. Many small and big banks, credit unions, online issuers, and other establishments offer cards with perks such as free movies, money back rewards, competitive interest rate, no annual fee, banking rebates, and points that can be redeemed for gift certificates, free hotel nights and upgrades, merchandise, and travel packages and rewards. Some issuers also advertise low-interest credit cards that are specifically designed for college students and come with add-ons such as card checks, special discounts, generous cash back on groceries, travel points, no blackout dates or restrictions, and a lot more. Generally, credit cards are intended for small and occasional purchases, and it is a poor idea to go over the limit and make frivolous purchases. Maxed out cards have a negative impact on your credit, and issuers usually charge penalty interest which is considerably higher than the standard rate.

Student Loans

Student loans fall in two broad categories – government-funded and loans by private lenders. The first category offers plenty of benefits, the main being affordable payments and interest rate, and interest-free financing while at school. This is one solution for students who are not eligible for grants or scholarships or still need money to meet school-related expenses. To apply for a student loan, residents are asked to provide documents such as temporary social insurance card, CRA notice of assessment, citizenship card, driver's license, or employee identification card. Students are also asked to review and sign the student financial assistance agreement in case they are enrolled part-time. The application procedures are different, depending on your territory or province of residence. Applications are available at student financial assistance offices, your high school, and online. In addition to government funding, students are free to apply for a secured or unsecured loan from a private lender such as a credit union, major bank, or another provider. Unsecured loans are less risky because your signature serves as a guarantee of prompt repayment. They are riskier for financial providers, however, especially if you are new to credit. The reason is that it is more difficult for banks to determine whether you are credit- or trustworthy or not. Borrowers with little credit exposure are usually offered a secured loan and asked to pledge some asset, be it equipment, property, vehicle, or anything else. If this is not an option, you may ask your parents to apply for a loan if they have stellar or good credit. Alternatively, a parent can be a cosigner or guarantor to increase your chances of approval. This is also a good way to secure better terms and rates. Keep in mind that the co-signer is also responsible for repayment and if you are unable to make payments, then your cosigner will be asked to repay the outstanding balance.